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(1565) Jamesscons
Mon, 27 November 2017 20:20:21
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A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid will not boil. (In North America, the term "furnace" is normally used if the purpose is never to boil the liquid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating system or procedures applications,[1][2] including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power generation, food preparation, and sanitation.

The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually manufactured from steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not found in wetted elements of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.[3] However, ferritic stainless is often found in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4]
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for steam locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.

For a lot of the Victorian "age of vapor", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead transferred towards the utilization of metal, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode significantly slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers significantly more advanced than those of welded steel boilers.

Cast iron might be used for the heating vessel of local drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is to produce hot water usually, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
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The foundation of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised warmth exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Direct method -direct method of boiler efficiency test is more usable or more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q= level of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a following parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of fuel in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fireplace heats a partially filled drinking water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large quantities of very low-pressure vapor generally, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume still left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that needs to be held completely surrounded by the water in order to keep up the temperature of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through another parallel pipe or a lot of money of multiple tubes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then under the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases go through a lot of money of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating system surface in comparison to a single pipe and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn solid fuels mainly, but are readily adaptable to the people of the gas or water variety.

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, pipes filled with drinking water are arranged in the furnace in a number of possible configurations. Water pipes connect large drums Often, the low ones containing drinking water and the upper ones vapor and drinking water; in other situations, like a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally gives high steam creation rates, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water pipe boilers can be made to exploit any high temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/steam is contained within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator where the pipe is permanently filled up with water. Super fast boiler, the tube is held so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers got some use in automobiles in the 19th century which use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the following manner: the firebox consists of an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a typical firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have met with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. In a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside ensemble iron sections.[citation needed] These areas are assembled on site to produce the finished boiler.
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Culture of Mechanical Designers (ASME) develop requirements and regulation codes. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with basic safety, security and design standards.[5]

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction due to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could start badly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When drinking water is changed into vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising vegetable will suffer from range development and corrosion. At best, this raises energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic loss and failing of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot steam and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal in to the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to use factories could demolish entire buildings.[6]

A boiler which has a loss of give food to water and it is permitted to boil dry out can be hugely dangerous. If feed drinking water is then sent into the empty boiler, the tiny cascade of incoming water instantly boils on connection with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be managed even by security vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to assist in preventing this condition from taking place, and thereby reduce their insurance statements.[7][8]

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temp; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize water and additional heat up the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at higher temp, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating flower because the higher steam heat takes a higher flue gas exhaust heat.[citation needed] There are several ways to circumvent this issue, by giving an economizer that heats the give food to water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. There are advantages to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its own utilization: increases in input temp to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There may also be practical limitations in using wet vapor, as entrained condensation droplets will harm turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will at first be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.

Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The heat in this area is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a liquid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme temperature in the flue gas route will also heat the superheater vapor piping and the vapor within. While the temperature of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[9] Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power herb.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of energy frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical liquid. There is absolutely no era of vapor bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which vapor bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine stages, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which turns the electrical generator that power is ultimately extracted. The liquid at that point may be considered a mix of steam and liquid droplets as it passes in to the condenser. This leads to somewhat less gas use and therefore less greenhouse gas creation. The word "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Boiler fittings and accessories
Pressuretrols to regulate the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a safety by setting the top limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which handles the amount of fire.
Safety valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and stop possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, known as a sight glass also, water measure or drinking water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on underneath of a boiler. As the name suggests, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is sometimes opened to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This enables a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water also.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Mostly found on a water boiler.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and become found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when make-up water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the temperatures of the makeup water.
Hand holes: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Steam drum internals, some display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that can be used to turn off the burner or shut down gas to the boiler to prevent it from working once the drinking water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown series: It offers a way for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that have a tendency to float on top of water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is made to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater series. This can be installed to the side of the boiler, below water level just, or to the top of the boiler.[10]
Top give food to: Within this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This may reduce boiler fatigue triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays the water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: Some pipes or bundles of tubes in water drum or the steam drum made to cool superheated vapor, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry steam.
Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main steam stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main vapor stop/check valve: It is utilized on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Fuel oil system:gasoline oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment:
Name dish:
Registration plate:

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